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Related post: the progression was more firm and assured.
Fifteen days after, the equilibrium was completely re-
Partial destruction of the cerebellum, then, means a tem-
porary loss of muscular co-ordination.
Flourens fell into an error regarding the influence of
the cerebellum as crossed instead of direct, Buy Levonorgestrel each hemisphere
exerting its influence over the corresponding half of the
body. With this exception, the experimental results of this
astute observer remain unchallenged to this day, even though
there may be difference of opinion as to his deductions re-
garding the functions of the cerebellum.
Magendie, another French physiologist, followed closely
upon the work of Flourens, and repeated the almost forgot-
ten experiments of Pourfour du Petits — that of cutting the
cerebellar peduncles and observing the animal rotate on iis
longitudinal axis toward the right or left, according to the
side on which the peduncle was cut. lie also observed
what Fodera von Palermo had previously noticed — that in-
juries to the cerebellum were accompanied by an uncon-
trollable inclination to lean or even fall backward.
Serres (1826), through faulty experimentation, taught
that the action of the cerebellum was crossed ; he also ob-
served the tendency of animals to recoil, to incline the head
backward, and was the first to call attention to the fact
that 1.5 Mg Levonorgestrel the cerebellum exerts powerful influence over the ex-
[N. Y. Mbd. Joue.,
tremities, more particularl}' the inferior or posterior. This is
shown nicely in the experiments upon pigeons, where, after
extirpation of the cerebellum, on being thrown into the air
they are able to fly, but, on trying to rise from the ground,
they are unable to use their feet, because, as Serres says, What Is Levonorgestrel
they are paralyzed.
Gall, the father of phrenology, in the early part of the
century taught that the cerebellum was the seat of the sex-
ual desires. This doctrine was combated by Bouillaud
(1827), who, studying many clinical cases, asserted that the
cerebellum Levonorgestrel Tablets had no connection whatever with the sexual in-
stincts. Bouillaud followed Flourens's experiments, and
tried to prove that the cerebellum presided over acts of Levonorgestrel Tablet
equilibrium, of station, and of progression.
Andral, in 1833, published the first series Levonorgestrel Cost of cases of
cerebellar disease, and was able to collect ninety-three cases,
of which six were under his personal observation. Of these
cases, only one, according to Andral, tended to confirm the
opinion of physiologists that the cerebellum was the organ Levonorgestrel Price
that regulated the co-ordination of muscular movements.
Longet (1842), in his Anatomy and Physiology of the Nerv-
ous System, says, in view of Andral's results, we must be
extremely reserved in calling the cerebellum the co-ordina-
tor of voluntary muscular movements. Andral's analysis
seems to have precipitated a merry war between the experi-
mental school and the pathological school. The former,
following Flourens and Bouillaud, regarded the cerebellum
as the organ of co-ordination, while the latter lent it no
such functions.
Flint, in his text-book on physiology, page 712, makes
a scrutinizing analy.sis of Andral's cases, and comes to the
following very sound conclusions :
" Of Andral's ninety-three cases, eighty-five may be
thrown out altogether, leaving but eight; and of these
eight cases, five are so imperfectly described and the disor-
ganization of the cerebellum is so restricted that they may
also be disregarded. The ninety-three cases are thus re-
duced to three. Of these three cases, in two it is uncer-
tain whether or not there were deficiency of co ordinating
power, and in one the difficulty in equilibrium or co-
ordination was distinctly noted." This criticism does not
show that Andral's Buy Levonorgestrel Online cases are opposed to the Flourens
Following Andral's publication, there seems to have
been a lull in the study of cerebellar physiology, for noth-
ing important was published until the year 1860, when
Brown-Sequard, in his lectures on the central nervous sys-
tem, taught that the inco ordination was not due to the
loss of function of the cerebellum, but that it was due to
irritation of neighboring parts of the brain carried through
the cerebellar peduncles.
Schiff studied carefully the effects of cutting the cere>-
bellar peduncles and was the first to explain one of the ele-
ments of cerebellar ataxia — ^namely, that it was due to in-
complete fixation of the vertebral column, the result of
paralysis of the vertebral muscles.
Wagner, Dalton, Lusanna, and Eenzi, in their expeii- Estradiol Levonorgestrel
ments on pigeons and birds, added little that was not
known of cerebellar physiology, their findings taking
more the character of negative rather than positive phe-
Dalton, however, found that the greater the extirpation
of the cerebellum the more pronounced would be the motor
disturbances, and these would disappear, leaving nothing
but a certain general muscular weakness. After the disap-
pearance of the inco-ordination, the result of an irritative
lesion, there remains the general muscular weakness, the
result of the deficiency lesions.
The inco-ordination he believed to be due to the sudden
injury to the cerebellum as a whole, rather than the simple
loss of a part of its substance.
Renzi asserted that the cerebellum was the seat of
memory, while Lusanna set up the hypothesis that the
muscle sense resided in the cerebellum.
Other observers, especially Foville and Pinel-Grand-
champ, thought that the cerebellum stood in close relation
with the posterior white columns, and therefore presided
over general sensation.
Leven and OUivier (1862-63) rejected the Flourens
doctrine, but made the same error as Flourens in thinking
the action of the cerebellum crossed instead of direct.
Luys (1864) undertook to resuscitate the Rolando doc-
trine, and regarded the muscle weakness following extirpa-
tion of the cerebellum not paralytic but asthenic.
Weir Mitchell came practically to the same results ob-
tained by Dalton, Leven- Ollivier, and Luys, regarding the
weakness following extirpation of the cerebellum, and con-
sidered it as one of the great centres of force development
for voluntary and perhaps involuntary motion. Its loss
leaves finally no functional defect save some incapacity for
prolonged muscular activity.
Nothnagel in 1876 emitted the theory that to the mid-

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